Government schemes and policies have always been crucial part of UPSC Civil Services Examination, whether in Prelims or in Mains. They are also questioned in Interview round. Law Informants brings you a comprehensive compilation of Government schemes and policies since January 2020 to September 2020
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The information has been compiled by Ojaswi Singh, Student at National Law University Odisha.
Union Health Minister has launched NetSCoFAN, a network of research & academic institutions working in the area of food & nutrition.
What is NetSCoFAN?
It would comprise of eight groups of institutions working in different areas viz. biological, chemical, nutrition & labelling, food of animal origin, food of plant origin, water & beverages, food testing, and safer & sustainable packaging.
FSSAI has identified eight Nodal Institutions who would develop a ‘Ready Reckoner’ that will have inventory of all research work, experts and institutions and would carry out and facilitate research, survey and related activities. • It would identify research gaps in respective areas and collect, collate and develop database on food safety issues for risk assessment activities.
2. Social Awareness and Action to Neutralise Pneumonia Successfully (SAANS)
The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has launched a campaign named Social Awareness and Action to Neutralise Pneumonia Successfully (SAANS).
Key features of the programme:
• A child suffering from pneumonia will be treated with a pre-referral dose of antibiotic amoxicillin by Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) workers.
• Pulse Oximeter (device to monitor oxygen saturation) will be used at the Health and Wellness Centre for identification of low oxygen levels in the blood of child and if required, the child can be treated by the use of oxygen cylinders.
• A mass awareness campaign will be launched about the effective solutions for pneumonia prevention like breastfeeding, age-appropriate complementary feeding and immunization etc.
3. Surakshit Matritva Aashwasan (SUMAN)
The Union Government has launched Surakshit Matritva Aashwasan (SUMAN) to provide quality healthcare at zero cost to pregnant women, new mothers and newborns.
About the scheme:
It aims to provide dignified and quality health care at no cost to every woman and newborn visiting a public health facility.
Under the scheme, the beneficiaries visiting public health facilities are entitled to several free services. These include at least four ante natal check-ups that also includes one checkup during the 1st trimester, at least one checkup under Pradhan Mantri Surakshit Matritva Abhiyan, Iron Folic Acid supplementation, Tetanus diptheria injection.
4. National Nutrition Survey
With the help of UNICEF, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare recently conducted the firstever comprehensive National Nutrition Survey. The survey recorded malnutrition that included micronutrient deficiencies and details of noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, cholesterol and kidney function in children and adolescents.
Key findings of the survey:
1. Around 10% of children in the age group of 5 to 9 years and adolescents in the age group 10 to 19 years are pre – diabetic. 5% of them were overweight and 5% suffered from blood pressure.
2. The survey for the first time proved the coexistence of obesity and under nutrition.
3. One in five children in the age group 5 to 9 years were stunted.
4. Tamil Nadu and Goa had the highest number of adolescents who were obese or overweight.
5. Ayushman Bharat
Arogya Manthan event was organised by the National Health Authority, to mark the completion of one year of Ayushman Bharat PM-JAY (Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana). The purpose of the event is to provide a platform to meet for all the important stakeholders of PMJAY to meet and discuss the challenges faced in the implementation of the scheme in the past year and to forge new understanding and pathways to improving implementation.
About Ayushman Bharat:
Launched as recommended by the National Health Policy 2017, to achieve the vision of Universal Health Coverage (UHC).
This initiative has been designed on the lines as to meet SDG and its underlining commitment, which is “leave no one behind”.
Aim: to undertake path breaking interventions to holistically address health (covering prevention, promotion and ambulatory care), at primary, secondary and tertiary level. Includes the on-going centrally sponsored schemes – Senior Citizen Health Insurance Scheme (SCHIS) and Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY).
Ayushman Bharat adopts a continuum of care approach, comprising of two inter-related components, which are:
1. Health and Wellness Centres (HWCs).
2. Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PM-JAY).
6. Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI) 2.0
To ensure that not a single child in the country misses out on vaccination, the government launched the ‘Intensified Mission Indradhanush 2.0’ with a special focus on improving coverage in areas with “low” immunisation. Focus on urban, underserved population and tribal areas.
• Through ‘IMI 2.0’, the health ministry aims to reach each and every child below the age of two years and all pregnant women still uncovered/partially covered in 271 districts of the country and 652 blocks of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
• IMI 2.0 will include four rounds of vaccination, with each round involving a seven-day immunisation drive to be conducted each month.
7. Pradhan Mantri National Dialysis Programme
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has come out with a set of guidelines for establishing peritoneal dialysis services under the Pradhan Mantri National Dialysis Programme. The new guidelines, envisage providing training to community health workers to provide support to persons on peritoneal dialysis at home or in primary health care settings.
Significance of these guidelines:
• The guidelines aim to serve as a comprehensive manual to states that intend to set up peritoneal dialysis services and for providers of peritoneal dialysis as a `best practice’ document to ensure delivery of high quality and cost-effective services.
• It also aims to achieve equity in patient access to home-based peritoneal dialysis, reduce the overall cost of care to the system by focusing on efficient leveraging of resources, and bring in consistency of practice, pricing and a full range of product availability.
8. Food Safety Mitra (FSM) scheme
Food Safety Mitra (FSM) scheme for strengthening and scaling up ‘Eat Right India’ movement launched.
What is FSM scheme?
A scheme to support small and medium scale food businesses to comply with the food safety laws and facilitate licensing and registration, hygiene ratings and training.
How it works?
Food Safety Mitras will be chosen. They undergo training and certification by FSSAI to do their work and get paid by food businesses for their services.
9. RUCO (Repurpose Used Cooking Oil) initiative
Concerns associated with the consumption of used cooking oil (UCO):
• During frying, several properties of oil are altered, Total Polar Compounds (TPC) are formed on repeated frying.
• The toxicity of these compounds is associated with several diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, liver diseases. Limit set by FSSAI: FSSAI has fixed a limit for Total Polar Compounds at 25 percent beyond which the vegetable oil shall not be used.
10. National Digital Health Blueprint
The government released NDHB which aims to create National Digital Health Eco- System.
Highlights of the National Digital Health Blueprint (NDHB):
1. It lays out the ‘building blocks’ for the implementation of the National Health Stack (NHS), which aims to deploy Artificial Intelligence (AI) in leveraging health records.
2. Keeping true to the government’s larger agenda, of ‘data as a public good’, the blueprint proposes the linking of multiple databases to generate greater and granular data that can be leveraged by the public as well as private sector – including insurance companies, hospitals, apps and researchers.
3. The blueprint proposes a National Digital Health Mission “as a purely government organisation with complete functional autonomy adopting some features of some of the existing National Information Utilities like UIDAI and GSTN.”
11. “LaQshya” (Labour room Quality improvement Initiative)
Government of India has launched “LaQshya” (Labour room Quality improvement Initiative) to improve quality of care in labour room and maternity operation theatres in public health facilities.
About LaQshya: It’s a multipronged approach focused at Intrapartum and immediate postpartum period.
Following types of healthcare facilities have been identified for implementation of LaQshya program:
• Government medical college hospitals.
• District Hospitals & equivalent health facilities.
• Designated First Referral Units (FRUs) and high case load Community Health Centre (CHCs) with over 100 deliveries/month (60 in hills and desert areas)
12. Population Research Centres (PRCs)
• The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) established a network of Population Research Centres (PRCs) with the mandate to provide, inter alia, critical research-based inputs related to the Health and Family Welfare Programs and Policies at the national and state levels.
Autonomous in their functioning, these PRCs are provided 100 per cent central assistance in the form of grant-in-aid on a year-to year basis.
• Activities of PRCs are monitored by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare through regular periodical progressreports and meeting, seminars etc. Besides, guidance is also provided by variousinstitutions as well as committees both at State and national level constituted by the Ministry from time to time.
• Administratively, these PRCs are under the control of their host University/Institutions where they are located.
• However, as the PRCs are established as well as fully funded by the Ministry of health & family Welfare, they are governed by the guidelines issued by the Ministry from time to time.
13. Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana
Launched in April, 2016. It was formulated in line with One Nation–One Scheme theme by replacing earlier two schemes National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS) and Modified National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (MNAIS).
The Scheme covers all Food & Oilseeds crops and Annual Commercial/Horticultural Crops for which past yield data is available and for which requisite number of Crop Cutting Experiments (CCEs) are being conducted under General Crop Estimation Survey (GCES).
14. Soil Health Cards (SHC) scheme
In the second phase of the scheme’s implementation, 11.69 crore Soil Health Cards were distributed to farmers in two years. And the scheme has led to a decline of 8-10% in the use of chemical fertilizers and also raised productivity by 5-6%.
About the scheme:
Launched in 2015.
Under the scheme, the government plans to issue soil cards to farmers which will carry crop-wise recommendations of nutrients and fertilisers required for the individual farms. This will help farmers to improve productivity through judicious use of inputs.
15. Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN)
PM-KISAN Scheme completes one year on February 24, 2020. So far, over 8 crore 46 lakh farmers covered under Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi.
About Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi: The scheme was started with a view to augment the income of the farmers by providing income support to all farmers’ families across the country, to enable them to take care of expenses related to agriculture and allied activities as well as domestic needs. Under the Scheme an amount of Rs.6000/- per year is transferred in three 4-monthly installments of Rs.2000/- directly into the bank accounts of the farmers, subject to certain exclusion criteria relating to higher income status. The entire responsibility of identification of beneficiaries rests with the State / UT Governments.
16. Participatory Guarantee Scheme (PGS)
• Union Agriculture Ministry’s PGS is a process of certifying organic products, which ensures that their production takes place in accordance with laid-down quality standards. • The certification is in the form of a documented logo or a statement.
• According to the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), the Bonn-based global umbrella organisation for the organic agriculture movement, PGSs are “locally focused quality assurance systems” that “certify producers based on active participation of stakeholders and are built on a foundation of trust, social networks and knowledge exchange”.
17. Skills Build platform
Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship launches Skills Build platform in Collaboration with IBM.
• Launched by Directorate General of Training (DGT), under the aegis of Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship (MSDE).
• As part of the programme, a two-year advanced diploma in IT, networking and cloud computing, co-created and designed by IBM, will be offered at the Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) & National Skill Training Institutes (NSTIs).
18. Mahatma Gandhi National Fellowship Programme
Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship launches Mahatma Gandhi National Fellowship Programme with IIM Bangalore.
Details of the programme:
• It is a two-year fellowship programme to boost skill development at the district level.
• Designed under Skills Acquisition and Knowledge Awareness for Livelihood Promotion (SANKALP).
19. SANKALP scheme
SANKALP is a Centrally sponsored scheme of Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship (MSDE).
It is an outcome focused scheme marking shift in government’s implementation strategy in vocational education and training from inputs to results.
It will provide market relevant training to 3.5 crore youth.
20. Jan Shikshan Sansthans (JSS)
• Formerly under the Ministry of Human Resources Development, Jan Shikshan Sansthan was transferred to the Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship in 2018.
• Jan Shikshan Sansthans (JSS) were established to provide vocational training to non-literate, neo-literate, as well as school dropouts by identifying skills as would have a market in the region of theirestablishment.
• They were formerly known as Shramik Vidyapeeth.
21. School Health Ambassador Initiative
The central Government launched the School Health Ambassador Initiative.
It will be jointly run by the Union ministries of Health and Human Resources Development. The initiative will be linked with other government initiatives such as the Eat Right campaign, Fit India movement and Poshan Abhiyaan for the overall development of children’s health.
22. Pradhan Mantri Innovative Learning Programme- ‘DHRUV’
Pradhan Mantri Innovative Learning Programme- ‘DHRUV’, a 14 day learning programme, was launched recently from Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) Headquarters at Bengaluru.
• The programme is called DHRUV and every student to be called ‘DHRUV TARA’.
• 60 students, 30 each from Science and Performing Arts discipline, have been selected for this ambitious programme in the first batch.
• The programme begins with a tour at ISRO followed by a stay in Delhi, where the selected students will be mentored by renowned experts.
• It is being started to identify and encourage talented children to enrich their skills and knowledge.
• TechEx – technology exhibition at IIT Delhi, was recently organized to demonstrate products and prototypes developed under the two flagship schemes of the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) namely IMPacting Research, INnovation and Technology (IMPRINT) and UchhatarAvishkar Yojana (UAY).
24. Paramarsh Scheme
• The Union Ministry of Human Resource Development has launched ‘Paramarsh’ – a University Grants Commission (UGC)scheme.
• The scheme isfor MentoringNational Accreditation andAssessment Council (NAAC) Accreditation Aspirant Institutions to promote Quality Assurance in Higher Education.
25. Rashtriya Avishkar Abhiyan
• It was launched in 2015.
• It is a convergent framework across School Education and Higher Education to motivate children of the age group from 6-18 years in learning Science, Mathematics and Technology through observation, experimentation, inference drawing, model building, etc. both through inside and outside classroom activities and processes.
26. Shyama Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission
Launched in 2016, the programme is designed to deliver catalytic interventions to rural areas on the threshold of growth.
It is now a Centrally Sponsored Scheme.
There is a funding support of up to 30% of the estimated investment for each Rurban cluster, given as Critical Gap Funding (CGF), while 70% of the funds is mobilized by the States through convergence with synergic State and Central programmes and private investment and institutional funding.
27. Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana-lll (PMGSY-III)
Phase III of Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) has been launched.
Features of Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana-lll (PMGSY-III):
1. Under the PMGSY-III Scheme, it is proposed to consolidate 1,25,000 Km road length in the States.
2. It involves consolidation of Through Routes and Major Rural Links connecting habitations to Gramin Agricultural Markets (GrAMs), Higher Secondary Schools and Hospitals.
28. National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP)
The NSAP is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme under the Ministry of Rural Development. It came into effect from 15th August,1995.
To provide financial assistance to the elderly, widows and persons with disabilities in the form of social pensions.
29. Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin)
The Centre has approved the second phase of the Swachh Bharat Mission (Rural) with an estimated central and state budget of Rs 52,497 crore. Key facts:
• The second phase will be implemented on a mission mode between 2020-21 and 2024-25.
• The second phase will focus on Open Defecation Free Plus (ODF Plus), which includes ODF sustainability and solid and liquid waste management (SLWM).
• The ODF Plus programme will converge with MGNREGA, especially for grey water management, and will complement the newly launched Jal Jeevan Mission.
• The programme will also work towards ensuring that no one is left behind and everyone uses a toilet.
• The fund sharing pattern between the Centre and States will be 90:10 for North-Eastern States and Himalayan States and UT of J&K; 60:40 for other States; and 100:0 for other Union Territories, for all the components.
30. Atal Bhujal Yojana
It is a Rs.6000 crore World Bank approved Central Sector Scheme of the Ministry of Jal Shakti. The funding pattern is 50:50 between Government of India and World Bank.
Aims to improve ground water management in priority areas in the country through community participation.
31. List of Important Schemes launched by the Modi Government
|SCHEME / PROGRAMME||STARTING DATE||OBJECTIVE OF SCHEME|
|JAN DHAN YOJNA||28 August||To connect more and more peoples from the banking services|
|SKILL INDIA MISSION||28 August||Skill Development in Youth|
|MAKE IN INDIA||28 September||Promoting manufacturing Sector in the country|
|SWACHCHH BHARAT MISSION||2 October||Making India a clean country till October 2, 1919|
|SANSAD ADARSH GRAM YOJANA||11 October||Development in the villages which includes social development, cultural development.|
|SHRAMEW JAYATE YOJANA||16 October||Plan dedicated to labour development|
|BETI BACHAO BETI PADHAO||22 January||The goal of this scheme is to make girls socially and financially self-reliant through education.|
|HRIDAYA PLAN||21 January||To take care of world heritage sites and to make these sites economically viable.|
|PM MUDRA YOJNA||8 April||Loan to small businessmen from 50 thousand to 10 lakh|
|UJALA YOJNA||1 May||Distribution of LED bulbs at a low price to reduce electricity consumption|
|ATAL PENSION YOJNA||9 May||Monthly pension for people from the unorganized sector b/w age of 18 to 40 years|
|PRIME MINISTER JYOTI JYOTI BIMA YOJNA||9 May||Life Insurance of Rs. 2 lakh for people b/w 18 to 50 years (@Premium of Rs. 330 per annum)|
|PRADHAN MANTRI SURAKSHA BIMA YOJANA||9 May||General insurance/accident insurance for people between 18 and 70 years of 2 lakh (at a premium of 12 Rs. / year)|
|SMART CITY SCHEME||25 June||Developing 100 selected cities of the country as smart cities from 2015 to 2020|
|AMRUT PLAN||25 June||Developing all the basic amenities in more than 500 cities which have more than one lakh population|
|DIGITAL INDIA MISSION||2 July||Making all government services electronically available to the public|
|GOLD MONETIZATION SCHEME||5 November||Putting inoperative gold (lying at home and lockers) in productive works.|
|SOVEREIGN GOLD BOND SCHEME||5 November||To check the real demand of Gold; government introduced the Sovereign Gold Bond Scheme.|
|UDAY||20th November||Financial turnaround of Power Distribution Companies of Public Sector|
|START-UP INDIA||16 January||To Promote new enterprises|
|SETU BHARTAM YOJNA||4 March||Construction of Over and Under Bridge to make National Highways Railway Crossing free|
|STAND UP INDIA||5 April||Loans up to 10 lacs to 1 crore for establishment of new companies to Scheduled Castes / Tribes and Women Entrepreneurs|
|GRAMODAY SE BHARAT UDAY||14-24 April||Emphasizing the development of villages for proper development of the country|
|PRIME MINISTER UJJWALA PLAN||1 May||Providing the LPG connection to BPL families at subsidized rates|
|NAMAMI GANGE YOJNA||7 July||Cleanliness of river Ganga|
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